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|Title:||Design and Evaluation of High-Order QAM Circuits using Hybrid Approximate Techniques and Arithmetic on FPGAs|
|Keywords:||FPGA, VHDL, Log Likelihood Ratio, Decoding, Hardware Complexity, BER, Performance, QAM Modulation|
|Abstract:||In today's digital world, telecommunication has become the foundation for communities to seamlessly connect and share information through digital processes. The implementation of critical functions and tasks of the digital telecommunication chain imposes the strict constraints of "high-performance" and "low-power". In this direction, the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are considered attractive solutions, as they offer excellent performance/Watt ratio among the embedded devices. In this thesis, we target the demodulation operation, i.e., a key process in the digital communication system. More specifically, we perform an in-depth design space exploration, considering arithmetic and approximations in the computations, to design FPGA circuits with hardware description language (VHDL). Regarding the arithmetic, we consider both fixed- and floating-point. In terms of approximations, we apply bit truncation, replace the costly accurate fixed-point multiplication with inexact radix multipliers, and model the floating-point multiplication with less computational-intensive operations. For the demodulation algorithms, we examine 3 Soft Decision and 1 Hard Decision. The evaluation of the algorithms is performed in MATLAB by examining their Bit Error Rate (BER) and LLR. The implementation of the algorithms on the FPGA is generic in variable M-ary QAM and targets full-parallel architectures to provide high-throughput. Compared to the other modulation techniques, the 64-QAM Approximate LLR algorithm delivers the best trade-offs in terms of BER-resources. For this algorithm, the FPGA implementation results show that depending on the arithmetic and the approximation scheme, we deliver logic resources reduction up to 15% with a negligible difference in BER i.e., almost the same results with the full-precision algorithm. For higher order QAM, i.e., 256, the design's logic resources reduce up to 59%, saving significant FPGA resources for other components of the telecommunication system. The clock frequency varies from 357MHz to 555MHz. Finally, a comprehensive comparison among all the approximation schemes and algorithms is performed.|
|Appears in Collections:||Διπλωματικές Εργασίες - Theses|
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